Zoran Jeftić

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Faculty of Security Studies – University of Belgrade

PERIODIKA

ORGANIZACIONE PROMENE MINISTARTSTVA ODBRANE U XXI VEKU

Odbrambena organizacija svake savremene države treba da bude izbalansirana civilno-vojna institucija sa jasno zakonski definisanom civilnom supremacijom. Ona mora biti sposobna da u okviru raspoloživih javnih resursa, obezbedi najoptimalniji ambijent za razvoj sistema odbrane a pre svega, pripremu i efikasnu i efektivnu upotrebu vojske u ostvarivanju dodeljenih joj misija. Obzirom da je projektovano stanje odbrambene organizacije u neprestanom razvoju i promenama, iskazanu kroz potrebu da se upodobi stvarni rizicima i raspoloživim resursima sistem odbrane mora biti u reformi koja ima trajni karakter. Shodno navedenom, Republika Srbija je u poslednjih dvadeset godina u nekoliko navrata usklađivala organizacionu strukturu Ministarstva odbrane, održavajući i stanje aktuelnog političkog trenutka u zemlji. Osnovno polazište u izgradnji optimalne organizacije Ministarstva odbrane u Republici Srbiji bila je želja da se obezbedi dominantna pozicija ministra odbrane u okviru rada nadležne institucije. To je ujedno predstavljalo osnovu za razvoj uspešnog menadžmenta i potrebnih resursa za civilnu administraciju, kako bi se pre svega ostvario potreban organizacioni model koji bi omogućio demokratski nadzor nad vojskom, ali istovremeno ispoštovao i vojnu ekspertizu u svim oblastima za koje je to neophodno. Ujedno usvajanjem novih strategijskih dokumenata i uvođenjem u promet koncepta totalne odbrane, traži se usklađivanje organizacije šeme Ministarstva odbrane sa aktuelnim viđenjem politike bezbednosti u zaštiti nacionalnih interesa Republike Srbije. U radu će biti prikazane promenu u organizacionoj strukturi Ministarstva odbrane Republike Srbije od 2000 godine do danas.

PERIODIKA

The Serbian Armed Forces as the Postmodern Military

One of views in contemporary research of civil–military relations is the postmodern view of the role of the military in the post–Cold War period. Charles H. Moskos et al suggest a typology that is suitable for cross-national research of civil-military relations. These typological trends, used as variables for assessment along the lines of the modern, late modern, and postmodern paradigm, are: perceived threat; force structure; major mission definitions; media relations, homosexuals in military; dominant military professionalism; public attitude toward the military; civilian employees; women’s role; spouse and military; conscientious objection. The subject of the Moskos study were developed Western countries considered to be “advanced democracies”. We address the question of whether the typology developed by Moskos can be applied to countries in the process of transition such as the Republic of Serbia and whether the Serbian Armed Forces belong to the group of postmodern armed forces. With regard to research in the field of civil- military relations in Serbia and available data in this paper we analyzed some of the variables, such as: perceived threat; force structure; major mission definitions; dominant military professionalism; public attitude toward the military; women’s role and conscientious objection. For the purposes of this study, we analyzed the literature on civil-military relations, legal documents, reports, survey data, the data provided to us by the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Serbia, as well as the research and publications examining modern and late modern armed forces for the purposes of this study. The analysis of the mentioned documents and literature led us to conclude that the Serbian Armed Forces can be classified as postmodern armed forces based on a large number of indicators.

PERIODIKA

Media and Democratic Control Over the Armed Forces In the Republic Of Serbia

State institutions (all three branches of government) have an important role in democratic control of the armed forces, together with civil society institutions among which the media, referred to as “the fourth branch of government” or “the watchdogs of democracy”, play the most important role. The armed forces need the media in order for them to inform the public about their role in society, educate the public on the issues of defense and security, as well as enable easier access to current events. For the majority of people in Serbia the media are the main source of information about what happens in society, and they influence public opinion to a great extent. However, previous research of the relations between the media and the armed forces in Serbia referred exclusively to the analysis of media content, while the media’s attitudes and knowledge of democratic control were not included. In this paper, based on the results of a pilot project carried out in 2013, we will present the extent of knowledge Serbian media have about democratic control of the armed forces, how the media evaluate their relations with the Ministry of Defense, and the basic obstacles the media encounter while exercising democratic control in practice.

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