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САДРЖАJ

ЖАЛБА ПРЕД ОДБОРИМА ЗА ЖАЛБЕ ДЕЦЕНТРАЛИЗОВАНИХ АГЕНЦИЈА КАО ОБЛИК ПРАВНОГ ЛЕКА У УПРАВНОМ ПОСТУПКУ У ПРАВУ ЕВРОПСКЕ УНИЈЕ

Сажетак

У овом раду се, као облик правног лека у управном поступку у праву Европске уније (ЕУ), разматра механизам жалби пред одборима за жалбе (ОЖ) десет децентрализованих агенција које доносе одлуке са правним дејством на трећа лица у контексту регулације унутрашњег тржишта. На почетку рада су укратко представљене функције правних лекова у управном поступку у праву ЕУ. Након тога су представљени извори права за жалбу пред ОЖ, и то: 1) извори примарног права – чл. 263. ст. 5. Уговора о функционисању ЕУ и чл. 41. ст. 1. Повеље о основним правима ЕУ; 2) извори секундарног права – оснивачки и други акти којима се уређује деловање агенција и пословници ОЖ који се усвајају у форми имплементационих и делегираних аката Комисије; и 3) остали извори права који обухватају пословнике које усвајају сами ОЖ, правнообавезујуће акте које доносе агенције, праксу Суда ЕУ, праксу ОЖ и акте тзв. меког права.

Главни део рада посвећен је питањима која су разматрана у оквиру три аспекта жалбеног поступка. Први подразумева допуштеност жалбе, а у склопу тога су разматрани: 1) надлежност ОЖ, тј. врсте одлука које могу да буду предмет жалбе, при чему је фокус на правнообавезујућим одлукама агенција у контексту регулације тржишта; 2) активни locus standi пред ОЖ; 3) рокови за изјављивање жалбе; и 4) суспензивно дејство жалбе. Други аспект се односи на основаност жалбе, а у склопу тога су разматрани: 1) ремонстративна природа жалбе у агенцијама OHIM/EUIPO, CPVO, EASA, ECHA и ERA; 2) медијација тј. могућност постизања пријатељског решења између страна у жалбеном поступку у агенцијама OHIM/EUIPO и ECHA; и 3) разматрање жалбе пред ОЖ и рокови за доношење одлуке о жалби. Трећи аспект се односи на одлуку ОЖ, при чему је фокус на два модела поступања ОЖ када је жалба основана. Први модел, примењен у свим агенцијама, подразумева да ОЖ може да упути предмет надлежном органу агенције на даље одлучивање, при чему је он везан правним тумачењем ОЖ. Други модел, примењен у агенцијама OHIM/EUIPO, CPVO и ECHA, подразумева да ОЖ може да користи надлежности органа чија одлука је предмет жалбе, што значи да може да измени ту одлуку или доносе нову. Након тога је укратко представљена могућност оспоравања одлуке ОЖ пред Судом ЕУ.

На крају је дат осврт на главне предности и недостатке жалбе пред ОЖ као правног лека. Главну предност представља то што овај лек служи као ефикасан филтер за приступ Суду ЕУ и адекватно средство у сврху раног решавања спорова. С друге стране, главни недостатак се односи на чињеницу да у вези са одређеним одлукама које могу да промене правни положај лица не постоји право жалбе или надлежност ОЖ није јасно утврђена.

кључне речи:

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