The European Union, NATO and the “Arab Spring”
In this paper the author analizes political upheavals in Northern Africa and the Near East, trying to investigate their causes and outcomes. The author also compared these protests to earlier Eastern European wave of liberal democratization. Social unrest in Arab countries was generated by political, social and economic problems, along with the regimes’ loss of legitimacy and oppression. The outcomes of the upheavals vary from one affected country to another. The author wanted to underline that EU and NATO had different roles in this democratizing political transformation. Whereas European Union was too passive, NATO took much more active role in this process.
- Aliboni, R. et al. (2008) Union for the Mediterranean: Building on the Barcelona acquis. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies.
- Asseburg, M. and Salem, P. (2009) No Euro-Mediterranean Community without peace. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies.
- Barry, B. (2011) “Libya’s Lessons In Survival: Global politics and Strategy.” Strategic Comments, 53, no. 5, pp. 5-14. International Institute for Strategic Studies.
- De Vasconcelos, A. (ed.) (2011) The Arab democratic wave: How the EU can seize the moment. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies.
- Gaub, F. (2011) “Libya in Limbo: How to Fill the Security Vacuum.” Research Report. Rome: Research Division – NATO Defense College.
- Gaub, F. et al. (2011) “The Arab Explosion: Questions and options for NATO.” Research Report. Rome: Research Division – NATO Defense College.
- Gaub, F. et al. (2011) “NATO’s Role in a Post-Conflict Libya.” Research Report. Rome: Research Division – NATO Defense College.
- Forging a democracy from Libya’s Jamahiriya 2011. Strategic Comments, vol. 17, comment 31. International Insitiute for Strategic Studies.
- Manoilo, A. (2011) “The fig revolutions.” Mezhdunarodnaia Zhizh. Moscow, pp. 63-78.
- Orlov, A. (2011) “The first revolutions of the XXI century.” Mezhdunarodnaia Zhizh, 45-52.
- Sloan, S. R. (2011) NATO After Libya, (online) Available at: http://www.acus.org. [Accessed 3 March 2011].
- Sloggett, D. (2011) “Libya resolutions pose international questions.” Jane’s Defence Weekly. Surrey.
- Smith, S. J. (2011) “EU-NATO cooperation: a case of institutional fatigue?” European Security, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 243-264. Routledge.
- Tigner, B. (2011) “Ghadaffi is gone, but what next for NATO?” Jane’s Defence Weekly. Surrey.