Tema broja

PROBLEMI I IZAZOVI MIGRATORNIH KRETANЈA

MIGRACIJE I GRAĐANSKI RATOVI: PRIRODA MEĐUSOBNOG ODNOSA

Sažetak

Ozbiljnost posledica koje povezanost građanskih ratova i migracija izazivaju na individualnom, nacionalnom ali i globalnom planu, uslovila je veliko interesovanje ne samo međunarodnih agencija, već i šire akademske zajednice za proučavanje ovog problema. Generalni cilj rada je izvođenje sistematičnog pregleda relevantnih naučnih izvora, kako bi se se stekli dubinski uvidi o odnosu migracija i građanskih ratova. Istraživanje je sprovedeno analizom najuticajnijih teorijskih radova, kao i rezultata empirijskih istraživanja koja su pokretana s ciljem da se ispitaju različite dimenzije povezanosti ove dve pojave. U radu je istaknuto nekoliko osnovnih mehanizama putem kojih migracije i građanski ratovi utiču međusobno jedni na druge: način na koji građanski rat indukuje prisilne migracije; različiti socijalni i zdravstveni problemi izbeglog stanovništva kao posledica građanskog rata; uticaj migracija na izbijanje ili intenziviranje građanskih ratova. Uvidom u domete dosadašnje akademske diskusije o predmetu istraživanja, možemo zaključiti da je veza građanskih ratova i migracija vrlo kompleksna i, što je još važnije, dvosmerna i posredovana brojnim faktorima.

Ključne reči:

Reference

    1. Бали Сита, „Кретање становништва“, узборнику: Увод у студије безбедности, (приредио: Вилијамс Пол), Службени гласник, Факултет безбедности, Београд, 2012, стр. 584–599.
    2. Adhikari Prakash, “Conflict‐Induced Displacement, Understanding the Causes of Flight”, American Journal of Political Science, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford,Vol. 57, No. 1, 2013, pp. 82-89.
    3. Apodaca Clair, “Human Rights Abuses: Precursor to Refuge Flight?”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Refugee Studies Centre, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1998, pp. 80–93.
    4. Azam Jean-Paul, Hoeffler Anke, “Violence against civilians in civil wars: looting or terror?”, Journal of Peace Research,SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2002, pp. 461-485.
    5. Cairns Edmund, A safer future: Reducing the human cost of war, Oxfam, Oxford, 1997.
    6. Colletta Ј. Nat, Cullen L. Michelle, Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala, and Somalia, World Bank, Washington, DC, 2000.
    7. Collier Paul, Elliott V.L., Hoeffler Anke, Reynal-Querol Marta, Sambanis Nicholas, Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy, World Bank, Washington DC, 2003.
    8. Collier Paul, Hoeffler Anke, “Greed and grievance in civil war”, Oxford economic papers, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Vol. 56, No. 4, 2004, pp. 563-595.
    9. Collier Paul, Hoeffler Anke, “On economic causes of civil war”, Oxford economic papers,Oxford University Press, Oxford, 50, No. 4, 1998, pp. 563-573.
    10. Costalli Stefano, Moretti Luigi, Pischedda Costantino, The Economic Costs of Civil War: Synthetic Counterfactual Evidence and the Effects of Ethnic Fractionalization (No. 184.), The Institute for Development Studies, Brighton, 2014.
    11. Davenport Christian, Moore Will, Poe Steven, “Sometimes You Just Have to Leave: Domestic Threats and Refugee Movements, 1964–1989”, International Interactions, Routledge, Abingdon, 29, No. 1, 2003, pp. 27–55.
    12. De Soysa Indra, Gleditsch Nils Petter, To cultivate peace: Agriculture in a world of conflict, PRIO, Oslo, 1999.
    13. Fearon James, Laitin David, “Ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war”, American Political Science Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Vol. 97, No. 1, 2003, pp. 75-90.
    14. Ghobarah Hazem Adam, Huth Paul, Russett Bruce, “Civil wars kill and maim people—long after the shooting stops”, American Political Science Review,Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Vol. 97, No. 2, 2003, pp. 189-202.
    15. Gleditsch Nils Petter, Wallenstee Peter, Eriksson Mikael, Sollenberg Margareta, Strand Havard, “Armed conflict 1946-2001: A new dataset”, Journal of Peace Research, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, Vol. 39, No. 5, 2002, pp. 615-37.
    16. Hakovirta Harto, Third World Conflicts and Refugeeism: Dimensions, Dynamics and Trends of theWorld Refugee Problem, Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters, Helsinki, 1986.
    17. Harpviken Kristian Berg, Social Networks and Migration in Wartime Afghanistan, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2009.
    18. Hoddie Matthew, Smith Jason Matthew, “Forms of civil war violence and their consequences for future public health”, International Studies Quarterly,Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken,Vol. 53, No. 1, 2009, pp.175-202.
    19. Hoeffler Anke, Reynal-Querol Marta, Measuring the costs of conflict, World Bank, Washington DC, 2003.
    20. Ikejiaku Brian-Vincent, “The relationship between poverty, conflict and development”, Journal of Sustainable Development, Canadian Center of Science and Education, Toronto, 2, No. 1, 2009, pp.15-28.
    21. Jonassohn Kurt, “Famine, Genocide and Refugees” Society, Springer, New York, Vol. 30, No. 6, 1993, pp. 72–76.
    22. Justino Patricia, On the links between violent conflict and chronic poverty: How much do we really know?, Chronic Poverty Research Centre Working Paper 61, 2006.
    23. Luckham Robin, Ahmed Ismail, Muggah Robert, White Sarah, Conflict and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: an assessment of the issues and evidence. Working Paper (No. 128), Institute for Development Studies, Brighton, 2001.
    24. Melander Erik; Öberg Magnus, Forced Migration: The Effects of Magnitude and Scope of Fighting, Uppsala University, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala, 2004.
    25. Melander, Erik; Öberg, Magnus; Hall, Jonathan, “Are “New Wars” More Atrocious? Battle Severity, Civilians Killed and Forced Migration Before and After the End of the Cold War”, European Journal of International Relations, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2009, pp. 505–36.
    26. Miller Gina Lei, Ritter Emily Hencken, “Emigrants and the onset of civil war”, Journal of Peace Research, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2014, pp. 51-64.
    27. Moore Will, Shellman Stephen, “Fear of Persecution: Forced Migration, 1952-1995”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, 48, No. 5, 2004, pp. 723–745.
    28. Moore Will, Shellman Stephen, “Refugee or Internally Displaced Person? To Where Should One Flee?”, Comparative Political Studies, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, 39, No. 5, 2006, pp. 599–622.
    29. Murshed Mansoob, “Conflict, civil war and underdevelopment: an introduction”, Journal of Peace Research, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, Vol. 39, No. 4,2002, pp. 387-393.
    30. Rummel Rudolph, Death by Government: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900, Transaction Publisher, New Brunswick, 1994.
    31. Salehyan Idean, Gleditsch Kristian Skrede, “Refugees and the Spread of Civil War”, International Organization, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Vol. 60, No. 2, 2006, pp. 335-366.
    32. Sambanis Nicholas, “What is civil war? Conceptual and empirical complexities of an operational definition”, Journal of conflict resolution, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2004, pp. 814-858.
    33. Sambanis Nicholas, “Conclusion: Using Case Studies to Refine and Expand the Theory of Civil War”, у зборнику: Understanding civil war: evidence and analysis (Vol. 2 Africa), (приредили: Collier Paul, Sambanis Nicholas), World Bank, Washington D.C., 2005, pp. 303-334.
    34. Schmeidl Susanne, “Exploring the Causes of Forced Migration: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis, 1971–1990.”, Social Science Quarterly, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken,Vol. 78, No. 2, 1997, pp. 284–308.
    35. Singer David, Small Melvin, Correlates of War Project: International and Civil War Data, 1816–1992, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1994.
    36. Stathis Kalyvas, The Logic of Violence in Civil War, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006.
    37. Toole Michael, “Displaced Persons and War”, у зборнику: War and Public Health, (приредили: Levy Barry, Sidel Victor), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008, pp. 207-226.
    38. UNHCR, Global Trends, 2015, Интернет, http://www.unhcr.org/figures-at-a-glance.html, 30/08/2016.
    39. Varshney Ashutosh, Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life:Hindus andMuslims in India, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2003.
    40. Wood Elisabeth Jean, “The Social Processes of Civil War: The Wartime Transformation of Social Networks”, Annual Review of Political Science, Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA,Vol. 11, 2008, pp. 539–61.
    41. Zolberg Aristide, Suhrke Astri, Aguayo Sergio, Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989.
PERIODIKA Socijalna politika 2/2016 УДК 314.74:355.426 61-78
ç