Faculty of Political Sciences University of Belgrade
PRINCIPLE OF TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY: POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE SEARCH FOR THE FINAL STATUS OF KOSOVO AND METOHIJA
The paper analyzes the principle of territorial integrity in the context of the dispute over the final status of Kosovo and Metohija. Without taking a position on the legal disputes, the authors provide an overview of the theoretical debate on territorial integrity and define the political consequences for Serbia's territorial integrity since Kosovo's* unilateral declaration of independence in 2008. Despite the constant mention of integrity as inseparable from sovereignty, the paper highlights the political practice in which Serbia's “territorial integrity” has been turned into an appeal to other states to respect the principle of inviolability of borders. Support for Kosovo's independence by leading Western countries conditioned Serbia to engage in a dialogue with temporary and then permanent administrative institutions in Pristina. The paper concludes that territorial integrity has been reduced to a declarative dimension, as the political demand for the protection of the Serbian community's rights in Kosovo and Metohija has obligated Belgrade to make many concessions, including recognizing the sovereign rights of Pristina's institutions.
INTEGRATION VS. SOVEREIGNATION. “OPEN BALKANˮ IN THE FRAMEWORK OF STATUS AND IDENTITY DISPUTES
The paper analyses the “Open Balkanˮ initiative with the intention of establishing, through a critical discourse analysis, the dominant positions of the countries of the Western Balkans regarding this form of regional cooperation. The authors will show that political discourses towards regional integration are, on the one hand, a product of the internal unfinished process of state and nation-building, while on the other hand, they are a direct consequence of open bilateral issues and the absence of a clear perspective of membership in the European Union. The paper proves that the dominant negative discourse on the “Open Balkansˮ initiative equates regional integration with the fear of losing sovereignty both over internal political processes and on the path of European integration.
REFRAMING AHTISAARI PROVISIONS: THE ISSUE OF CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS HERITAGE AND FINAL POST CONFLICT SETTLEMENT BETWEEN BELGRADE AND PRISTINA
The paper identifies protection mechanisms for the Serbian religious and cultural heritage in Kosovo defined by the Ahtisaari Plan as the basic normative framework and analyses its application. The authors start with the claim that the status of cultural and religious heritage was unjustifiably omitted from the Brussels dialogue and that this topic, due to identity-related sensitivity, can determine the citizens’ side when supporting a possible final agreement between Belgrade and Pristina. In the first part, the analysis provides a comprehensive overview of legal guarantees and experience in their implementation, deals in detail with examples of abuse and non-compliance with the adopted normative framework, criticism of the “special” status for Serbian heritage, and open disputes between the Serbian Orthodox Church (SOC) and Kosovo authorities. In the second part, the text provides a comparative overview of the special statuses holy places in Europe. Since extraterritorial status as the final model for Serbian religious and cultural heritage is often mentioned in public in Serbia, the paper tried to offer several models of territorial solutions for smaller units, in the form of enclaves, extraterritoriality, and condominiums, that could be potentially applied in the case of the Serb cultural and religious heritage in Kosovo.