Athens Institute for Education and Research - ATINER
HIGH SKY – LOW TENSION: CAN INDIA AND CHINA FIND COMMON INTEREST IN OUTER SPACE?
Cold War rivalry spilled into space when the Soviets launched Sputnik in 1957, leading to space being recognised as the fourth domain of warfare. As the monopoly of the US and former Soviet Union eroded, it created space for new actors to emerge from Asia, where China and India due to their investemnts in space technology as early as 1950’s had a significant headstart. The paper traces the evolution of the space programs of both the Asian countries and identifies how they are tailored to meet their aspirations to become global space powers. Against the backdrop of competitve cooperation which charecterises their overall bilateral relations, the paper assesses the trends in their national space programs to predict whether Sino-Indian relations will shift towards confrontation or cooperation. In view of the similar ambitions of both these countries in space, the paper conlcudes that there is scope for cooperation as well as competiton and which path will be adopted depends largely on their national strategic interests and further development of their fututre projects.
CORRUPTION AS A FORM OF THREATENING HUMAN SECURITY: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND HEALTH-CARE DIMENSION
The concept of human security was created with the aim of eliminating the shortcomings of classic security mechanisms. The concept is based on the quantification of parameters through indicators grouped into 7 areas (dimensions) relevant to the quality of life of people. The flaw of the classic security approach is that they occurrences, are being dealt with mostly, at the level of phenomena, without a deeper insight into their causes, and consequences for citizens. By selecting corruption as the subject of the paper, the authors point to its effects on the community at the level of citizens, ie their families, but at the same time point to possible causes that contribute to the creation of an environment conducive to corrupt practices. The political system is a reflection of social circumstances in an area, but at the same time, it is responsible for creating an environment in which all aspects of the life of members of a community take place. Corruption as a global phenomenon also requires appropriate treatment, as it threatens the principles of good governance, democratic procedures, and basic human rights. Corruption impedes the functioning of market principles, as the basic postulate of the liberal economy, questions the principle of equality in the market, and thus makes it impossible to bridge the development gap between rich and poor communities. Compromising basic moral principles leads to the establishment of a kleptocratic order that threatens all aspects of human security. States with strong institutions manage to control the negative phenomena, while small underdeveloped states fall into the vicious circle of poverty, nepotism, corruption, and dictatorship. This issue is often so serious that it threatens the survival of the states and the existence of their residents. Thanks to an analysis based on the concept of human security, the causes of the problem can be identified and appropriate steps taken to help communities tackle corruption. Sometimes this is impossible without help from the outside, however, one has to be careful not to fall into the trap of replacing one parasitic structure with another. The concept of human security, due to its universality, allows for a broader view of issues that are often not only related to space in the focus of analysis but also come from the environment and/or informal centers of power that are increasingly taking on a global character.