Đuro Bodrožić



Institute for Political Studies



Faculty of Law, Belgrade University



Faculty of Law, Belgrade University



Faculty of Law, Belgrade University



Đuro Bodrožić, PhD, is the Research Associate of the Institute for Political Studies and member of the editorial board of the journal Srpska politička misao (Serbian Political Thought). Author of the books: “Nacionalna država” (Nation State) (Srpska književna zadruga, 2015) and several academic papers and studies.



Economic histоry, created in recent times, has provided a completetely different angle of view of medieval history, which shows that the Middle Ages is not, as it is often called, a dark interlude between magnificent antiquity and brilliant Renaissance, but one of the most inventive societies in history; at least when it comes to technology. From the angle of economic history, we look at the Serbian Middle Ages – the economic base and the social structure. When we talk about the Serbian Middle Ages, the thought goes to the state of the Nemanjic dynasty. For the Serbian people, the state of Nemanjic remained a symbol of statehood and military power, but also the embodiment of Serbian medieval culture. Serbian medievel culture developed within the Byzantine culture, the highest culture of the Middle Ages. The Byzantine cultural pattern is visible in the organization of the state, social structure, political ideology, literature and it's legal monuments. The main shortcoming of the medieval Serbian state is related to the lack of a domestic trade layer that could match foreign traders. In addition to being financially more powerful, foreign traders also had greater privileges than domestic traders. The equating of domestic with foreign traders followed only in the time of Tsar Dusan. In that way, the trade profit did not stay in the country, but went to the home places from where the merchants came, most often to Dubrovnik and Venice. This is the main reason why there has been no development of cities and the emergence of urban population, and there are no structural economic shifts based on production and technological innovations. That was the great weakness of the medieval Serbian state, which greatly reduced it's resistance to the Turkish invasion.



At the start of the work we point out to the appearance of the science historiography, we quote the thinkers who made a decisive contribution about historical theme and it’s processed by aplication of scientific methology. When it comes to the national identity, history theme is unavoidable. Without a feeling for historical reality, secret of nation is inaccessible. Because the nation isn’t some kind of abstract-sociological category which could be reduces to a series of purely sociological elements, such as: language, race, teritory, statehood, although those characteristics are to a lesser ot greater extent, the essentials for determining the national being. But, nation is primarily a consciousness of common destiny, which untes the members of the group. A nation becomes aware of itself only when it becomes aware of it’s history. By becoming familiar with it’s history, selfawareness, the people get their identity - become self-made. Undoubtedly, the power of remembrance is what makes people people. Memories are a form from which the image of identity, individuals and people are formed. The discussion about identity is a talk about collective memory and the mediums that enable it to be held. Ethno-history is a source of cultural power. Communities that can boast about it’s history have competitive advantage because of the feeling of moral superiority over those whose history is poor or suspicious. Others have nothing left but to engage in cultural wars, for the purpose of appropriating the inheritance. The Balkan territory is known for such wars, but it’s not the only place where we encounter such a phenomenon. The key factors of identity, and historical memory, relate to beliefs that do not exist without mythology. The destruction of mythical creatures represents the impact on the core of what makes a worldview of one nation, it’s image of the world. This inevitably leads to the erosion of ethnic ties and the destruction of the people. One nation lives with it’s legends as long as with it’s real history. The time of deep political and social shocks always brings rearrangement of the past, especially at the time when the national culture was subjected to the aggression of the globalist concept. Today the struggle for identity, to a large extent, is reduced to the battle for it’s history.



The military function of the state is a basic state obligation. Military-related issues are the sole responsibility of the state. A monopoly on physical force is a specific feature of the state. The military is the most important instrument of state policy. In order to respond to its function, it must be strictly hierarchized and subordinated. Loyalty is the first virtue of a soldier. The military profession has its own history. Modern army and modern warfare are inseparably linked to the industrial revolution in England and the French civil revolution. The French Revolution was an event that changed the whole society the way warfare. The new type of army created in the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars have changed the nature of the war. The old tradition of dynastic wars with a limited number of participants and limited goals has become a past. We point to the importance of Prussia in the revolutionary military profession, especially the role of the Prusian General Staff. The success of German weapons was the reason for others to show interest in German principles and models of military organization. In the end, we pointed out the relation of military ethics to war and politics.