Main topic

CHINA AND THE TAIWAN QUESTION

ETHNIC VIOLENCE AND TERRORISM AS INTERNAL CHALLENGES TO CHINA’S NATIONAL SECURITY: A CASE STUDY OF XINJIANG**

Abstract

keywords :

References

    Anand, Dibyesh. 2019. “Colonization with Chinese characteristics: Politics of (in)security in Xinjiang and Tibet.” Central Asian Survey, 38(1):129-147. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1534801.

    Bovingdon, Gardner. 2011. The Uyghurs: Strangers in Their Own Land. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Castets, Rémi. 2003. “The Uyghurs in Xinjiang – The Malaise Grows.” China Perspectives, 49:1-22. doi: 10.4000/chinaperspectives.648.

    Chan, Kin-Man. 2010. “Harmonious Society.” In International Encyclopedia of Civil Society. eds. Anheier H.K. and Toepler S. New York: Springer.

    China Daily. 2023. “Xi stresses better coordinating development, security, March 13, 2023.  https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202303/13/WS640e817da31057c47ebb40ee.html.

    Clarke, Michael. 2018. “China’s ‘War on Terrorism’ Confronting the Dilemmas of the ‘Internal–External’ Security Nexus.” In Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in China Domestic and Foreign Policy Dimensions, ed. Michael Clarke. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Dillon, Michael. 2004. Xinjiang – China`s Muslim far North West. London: Routledge.

    Drinhausen, Katja and Helena Legarda. 2022. Confident Paranoia: Xi’s “Comprehensive National Security” Framework Shapes China’s Behavior At Home and Abroad, MERICS China Monitor. https://www.merics.org/sites/default/files/2023-02/Merics%20China%20Monitor%2075%20National%20Security_final.pdf.

    Duchâtel, Mathieu. 2016. “Terror Overseas: Understanding China’s Evolving Counter-Terror Strategy”. Policy Brief. ECFR/193. https://ecfr.eu/wp-content/uploads/ECFR_193_-_TERROR_OVERSEAS_UNDERSTANDING_CHINAS_EVOLVING_COUNTER_TERROR_STRATEGY.pdf.

    Evron, Yoram. 2007. “China’s Anti-Terrorism Policy.” Strategic Assessment, 10(3). https://www.inss.org.il/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/fe-3900055296.pdf.

    Fuller, Graham E. and S Frederick Starr. 2003. The Xinjiang Problem. Central Asia-Caucasus Institute. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/30301/01_Xinjiang_Problem.pdf.

    Grünberg, Nis and Claudia Wessling. 2021. “The CCP’s Next Century Expanding Economic Control, Digital Governance and National Security”. MERICS Papers China. No 10. 

    https://merics.org/en/report/ccps-next-century-expanding-economic-control-digital-governance-and-national-security.

    Gunaratna, Rohan, Arabinda Acharya and Wang Pengxin. 2010. Ethnic Identity and National Conflict in China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Hasmath, Reza. 2018. “What explains the rise of majority–minority tensions and conflict in Xinjiang?” Central Asian Survey. doi: 10.1080/02634937.2018.1496067.

    Julienne, Marc. 2021. “Xi Jinping’s Conquest of China’s National Security Apparatus.” Italian Institute for International Political Studies. Jun 29, 2021. https://www.ispionline.it/en/publication/xi-jinpings-conquest-chinas-national-security-apparatus-31007.

    Kam, Stefanie and Michael Clarke. 2021. “Securitization, surveillance and ‘de-extremization’ in Xinjiang.” International Affairs, 97(3): 625–642; doi: 10.1093/ia/iiab038.

    Kine, Phelim. 2021. “How China hijacked the war on terror.” Politico. September 9, 2021. https://www.politico.com/news/2021/09/09/china-hijacked-war-on-terror-511032.

    Mai, Jun. 2021. “China says tough measures in Xinjiang are to beat terrorism – why isn’t the West convinced?.” South China Morning Post. April 4, 2021.

    https://www.scmp.com/news/china/politics/article/3128277/china-says-tough-measures-xinjiang-are-beat-terrorism-why-isnt.

    Maizland, Lindsay. 2022. “China’s Repression of Uyghurs in Xinjiang.” CFR. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/china-xinjiang-uyghurs-muslims-repression-genocide-human-rights.

    Millward, James. 2004. Violent Separatism in Xinjiang: A Critical Assessment. Washington DC: East-West Center.

    Millward. James A. 2021. Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. 2021. London: Hurst&Co.Ltd.

    Mitrović, Dragana. 2010. “PR China’s Border Issues within the Framework of Modernization and Opening up.” In Japan and Serbia: Regional Cooperation and Border Issues: A Comparative Analysis, eds. Duško Dimitrijević and Ivona Lađevac. Belgrade: Institute of International Politics and Economics.

    Mullenbach, Mark J. 2013. “Dynamic Analysis of Dispute Management (DADM) Project.” Department of Political Science, University of Central Arkansas (Conway, AR). https://uca.edu/politicalscience/dadm-project/asiapacific-region/chinauighurs-1949-present//.

    Pejić, Igor. 2022. “The Development of the Modern Chinese Concept of Conventional Deterrence. Vojno delo, 4:II/15-27. doi: 10.5937/vojdelo2203015P

    Potter, Philip B. K. and Chen Wang. 2021. “Governmental Responses to Terrorism in Autocracies: Evidence from China.” British Journal of Political Science, 52(1): 1-23. doi:10.1017/S0007123420000514.

    Potter, Phillip B. K. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly, 7(4): 70-92. doi: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/26270778.

    Primiano, Christopher. 2013. “China under stress: The Xinjiang question.” International Politics, 50(3):455–473. https://doi.org/10.1057/ip.2013.7.

    Radio Free Asia. 2013. “Beijing Says Deadly Car Crash in Tiananmen Square a Terror Attack.” October 30, 2013. https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/explosion-10302013214659.html

    Radio Free Asia. 2014. “22 Killed in Farmers’ Market Attack in Xinjiang’s Kashgar Prefecture.” October 18, 2014. https://www.refworld.org/docid/544662fb4.html.

    Roberts, Sean R. 2020. The war on the Uyghurs China’s Internal Campaign against a Muslim Minority. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.

    Rodríguez, Pablo Adriano. “Violence resistance in Xinjiang (China): tracking militancy, ethnic riots and “knife-wielding” terrorist (1978-2012).” Historia Actual Online (2013): 135-149.

    Rodríguez-Merino, Pablo A. 2019. “Old ‘counter-revolution’, new ‘terrorism’: historicizing the framing of violence in Xinjiang by the Chinese state.” Central Asian Survey. 38 (1): 27-45,  doi: 10.1080/02634937.2018.1496066.

    Shamseden, Zubayra. 2021. “The Ghulja Massacre of 1997 and the Face of Uyghur Genocide Today.” The Diplomat. February 05, 2021. https://thediplomat.com/2021/02/the-ghulja-massacre-of-1997-and-the-face-of-uyghur-genocide-today/.

    Shukla, Srijan. 2021. “The Rise of the Xi Gang: Factional politics in the  Chinese Communist Party.” Occasional Paper, Issue No. 300. Observer Research Foundation. Last access February 18, 2023. https://www.orfonline.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/ORF_OccasionalPaper_300_XiGang.pdf.

    Smith Finley, Joanne. 2019. “Securitization, insecurity and conflict in contemporary Xinjiang: has PRC counter-terrorism evolved into state terror?” Central Asian Survey, 38(1): 1-26. doi: 10.1080/02634937.2019.1586348.

    Starr, S. Frederick (ed.) 2004. Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Borderland. New York: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute.

    START (National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism). 2022. Global Terrorism Database 1970 – 2020. Available at: https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd.

    Stefanović-Štambuk, Jelica and Slobodan S. Popović. 2022. “A Thousand Miles” and “A Thousand Tasks”: China’s Diplomatization of Multifaceted Russia-Ukraine Conflict and Global Security.” Politika nacionalne bezbednosti, 23 (2): 7-31. doi:10.22182/pnb.2322022.

    Tanasković, Darko. 2019. “Projekat obnove „Puta svile“ kao diplomatski izazov” [The Silk Road Restoration Project as a Diplomatic Challenge]. Diplomatija i bezbednost, 2(2):9-19.

    The State Council Information Office. 2019a. “The Fight Against Terrorism and Extremism  and Human Rights Protection in Xinjiang”. The State Council Information Office. Last Accessed March 18, 2023. http://geneva.china-mission.gov.cn/eng/ztjs/aghj12wnew/Whitepaper/202110/t20211014_9587980.htm.

    The State Council Information Office. 2019b. “China’s National Defense in the New Era.” The State Council Information Office, Last Access February 23, 2023. https://english.www.gov.cn/archive/whitepaper/201907/24/content_WS5d3941ddc6d08408f502283d.html.

    Tobin, David. 2020a. Securing China’s Northwest Frontier Identity and Insecurity in Xinjiang. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Tobin, David, 2020b. “A “Struggle of Life or Death”: Han and Uyghur Insecurities on China’s North-West Frontier.” The China Quarterly, 242: 301–323, doi:10.1017/S030574101900078X.

    Trailović, Dragan. 2011. “Etnički separatizam u severozapadnoj Kini: izazovi ujgurskog nacionalizma i separatizma Narodnoj Republici.” [Ethnic Separatism in Northwest China: Challenges of Uyghur Nationalism and Separatism to People’s Republic]. Master Thesis. University of Belgrade: Faculty of Political Sciences.

    Trailović, Dragan. 2012. “Socijalni rascepi i zahtevi za secesijom u NR Kini: Slučaj Sinđanga.” [Social Cleavages and Demands for Secession in the People’s Republic of China – A Case of Xinjiang]. Politička revija, 34(4): 267-290. doi: 10.22182/pr.3442012.15

    Trailović, Dragan. 2014. “Proces izgradnje nacionalne države u Kini i formiranje ujgurskog nacionalnog identiteta.” [The process of nation-state building in China and the formation of Uyghur national identity]. In (Dez)integracija država i identitet: (dez)integracija država i nacionalni identitet na početku 21. veka [(Dis)integration of states and identity: (dis)integration of states and national identity at the beginning of the 21st century], eds. Zoran Milošević and Živojin Đurić. 471-494. Beograd: Institut za političke studije.

    Trailović, Dragan. 2019a. “Diaspora Political Mobilization – The Cases of Albanian and Uyghur Diaspora Transnational Activism.” The Review of International Affairs, LXX (1174): 36–51.

    Trailović, Dragan. 2019b. “Uticaji međunarodnih činilaca na etničke sukobe u Narodnoj Republici Kini” [The Influences of International Factors on Ethnic Conflicts in The People’s Republic of China]. Phd Diss. University of Belgrade: Faculty of Political Sciences.  https://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/handle/123456789/11789

    Trailovic, Dragan. 2021. “Politika ljudskih prava Evropske unije i kineski suverenizam: slučaj Sinđanga” [The European Unionʼs Policy on Human Rights and Chinese Sovereignism: The Case of Xinjiang]. Međunaroni problem, LXXIII (1): 58-86. doi:10.2298/MEDJP2101058T

    Tredaniel, Marie and Pak, K. Lee. 2018. “Explaining the Chinese framing of the “terrorist” violence in Xinjiang: insights from securitization theory.” Nationalities Papers, 46(17): 177-195. doi:10.1080/00905992.2017.1351427 .

    Wang, David. D. 1998. “East Turkestan movement in Xinjing.” Journal of Chinese Political Science, 4(1): 1–18. doi: 10.1007/BF02876846.

    Wang, Ke and, Carissa Fletcher. 2018. The East Turkestan Independence Movement, 1930s to 1940s. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press.

    Wayne, Martin I., 2008. China’s War on Terrorism Counter-insurgency, politics and internal security. London, New York: Routledge, London.

    World Uyghur Congress [WUC]. 2021. “2020 Human Rights Situation in East Turkestan, Annual Report.” World Uyghur Congress. Last Access March 15, 2023. https://www.uyghurcongress.org/en/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Report-DesignWUC-19052021.pdf.

    Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounder, September 4, 2014. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim.

    Zambelis, Chris. 2010. “Uighur Dissent and Militancy in China’s Xinjiang Province.” CTC Sentinel, 3(1). https://ctc.usma.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Pages-from-CTCSentinel-Vol3Iss1-art5.pdf.

    Zenn, Jacob. 2014. “An Overview of Chinese Fighters and Anti-Chinese Militant Groups in Syria and Iraq.” China Brief, 14(19): 7-10 https://jamestown.org/program/an-overview-of-chinese-fighters-and-anti-chinese-militant-groups-in-syria-and-iraq/#.VX3kqEZGR9g.

    Zenz, Adrian and James Leibold. 2020. “Securitizing Xinjiang: Police Recruitment, Informal Policing and Ethnic Minority Co-optation.” The China Quarterly, 242: 324–348, doi:10.1017/S0305741019000778.

    Zenz, Adrian. 2018. “‘Thoroughly reforming them towards a healthy heart attitude’: China’s political re-education campaign in Xinjiang”, Central Asian Survey. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1507997.

    Zhang, Shaoying, and McGhee Derek. 2014. Social Policies and Ethnic Conflict in China: Lessons from Xinjiang. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

CHINA AND THE TAIWAN QUESTION UDC: 355.014(510) 83-106